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Thirty nine participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker. It is proposed that animated illustrations that are well matched to the text of the story guide children to those parts of the illustration that are important for understanding the story. This may explain why animated books resulted in better comprehension than static books.

When information from different sources are simultaneously available it supports the integration of images and language, and the verbal information will be understood and retained better than if conveyed by words alone Paivio, Reviews focusing on software for young children have shown that, apart from static pictures, in particular animated pictures can be helpful additions to stories Kamil et al.

If electronic books contain animated pictures this supports learning even in the absence of parental mediation Strouse et al. The aim of the current study was to specify why motion pictures in electronic books may provide guidance to the young learner, more so than printed books with only static illustrations.

So far there is not much empirical evidence for the so-called visual superiority hypothesis, proposing that looking at motion pictures is more appealing to young children than listening to the oral language Hayes and Birnbaum, When the two sources of information — narration and motion pictures — were not mismatched, the initial research finding of a negative effect of motion pictures on language recall disappeared in line with the dual coding theory Pezdek and Stevens, ; Pezdek et al. According to dual coding theory, the two kinds of stimuli, non-verbal information and narration, can be processed simultaneously without causing cognitive overload.

They are processed in separate but interconnected channels thus enhancing mental representations and memory traces that connect details of pictures with phrases in the narrative Paivio, Recent studies show that motion pictures built in storybooks make picture storybook exposure — one of the strongest incentives for developing language and literacy skills in the preschool age Snow et al.

These findings may have great practical relevance and may improve the format of the increasingly growing supply of multimedia storybooks in App stores. Prior studies have shown that eye fixations are time locked to referential expressions in the text which evidences that children integrate the images and the language.

Evans and Saint-Aubin showed that fixations on details in illustrations can be changed by altering the content of the text. In the same vein, Verhallen and Bus found that visual elements that the text highlighted were fixated more often and longer than elements in illustrations similar in color, size and other characteristics but not highlighted in the story text.

Children are known to be especially attentive to rapid action Potts et al. It is also possible that motion helps children to target a detail in an illustration instead of scanning the whole picture resulting in longer average fixations on the target detail. Motion in an illustration might thus help to concretize the story language that children simultaneously hear which supports understanding the story and specific words in the text.

For example, in Figure 1 the angrily looking director is the only part of the illustration in motion, thereby probably attracting the most attention despite many other visualized story details in the picture.

A confounding factor might be that motion implies information that is not available in the static version of the book. We were therefore careful to select still equivalents for the animated fragments that provide exactly the same information.

There cannot be any misunderstanding that the director in the still picture is jumping: the director is depicted with his feet in the air. One of the target illustrations chosen for fine-grained analysis of the eye-tracking data.

The same illustration in the static condition in the first row and still frames from the animated version are shown in the second row. Copyright by Het Woeste Woud. There is some evidence showing that young children seem to prefer a multimedia presentation of stories over a static presentation as in print books and are more attentive to animated materials.

However, mental effort decreased in the third and fourth repetition when the same story included only static illustrations. In the same vein, Moody et al. The present study investigated whether there is an overall elevated visual attention when listening to animated versus static books, that is, whether animated illustrations attract more visual attention than their static counterparts. In the present study children repeatedly listened to two stories: one with static pictures and another with animated illustrations.

Both books were presented three times on an eye-tracker. Previous studies have shown that differences in experiences with words strongly vary across children and make it hard to determine how much learning resulted from repeated readings of a particular book e. To maximally control for differences in word knowledge resulting from prior exposure to the target words we preferred adding non-words that is, words that do not exist in the Dutch language but sound like Dutch to each book replacing well-visualized words from the story text.

This way we were sure that children did not have any previous knowledge of the target words. Since the non-words were completely unknown we expected, as a first step toward learning these words, effects on receptive knowledge rather than on expressive word knowledge Nagy and Scott, ; Smeets and Bus, Accordingly, for the detail that is in motion we predicted longer total time of fixation as well as longer average fixations compared to exactly the same detail in a static illustration.

In this case screens in the animated condition may attract more visual attention than in the static condition. Children were recruited from 5 kindergarten classrooms in 3 public schools with 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children who had not yet received formal reading instruction. In the Netherlands formal reading instruction including intensive daily practice starts in grade 1. Two schools were located in sub-urban neighborhoods attracting a middle-class population; one school recruited children from a village attracting a more mixed population.

Parents of 43 children gave informed consent for participation of their child in the study. All participants were according to the teacher typically developing and not delayed in language or literacy, this was the only criterion for inclusion in the study. Among the 43 children were three children who were excluded from the study because they were siblings of other participants.

The final sample consisted of 39 children 22 boys and 17 girls with a mean age of From the three participating schools we recruited 9, 6, and 24 children, respectively. The study was a within-subject design in which every child participated in three conditions: a storybook with animated illustrations, a storybook with static illustrations and a control condition, including only post-testing and no book reading.

We decided to use a control condition because otherwise we cannot be sure that the quality of the retellings is the result of listening to the story instead of just seeing the pictures during the retelling. Note that the pictures visualized most story events.

The illustrations in both the animated and static conditions were the same and presented for exactly the same amount of time going together with the same oral narration, the only difference being the presence of motion in the animated versions.

As young children need repeated encounters with stories before it is possible to assess teach Verhallen et al. Three storybooks can be assigned to three conditions in six different ways. The participants were about equally assigned to these six possibilities. Sessions in which children listened to the stories took place at school in a spare room not in use for other activities.

In all there were three sessions. In each session children listened to two stories, one in the animated format and the other in the static format. The animated version of a book was presented for the same amount of time as the static version of the same book. In the third session children listened to the two books in the opposite order as in the previous sessions as shown in Table 1.

The researcher was present and started up the books. To register visual attention while hearing the narration the books were presented on the screen of an eye-tracker. Children sitting in front of the eye-tracker screen looked at the animated and static pictures while they listened to the narration by the computer voice. Post-testing on the second day conducted right after the third session included a retelling of the two stories that they had heard three times and the control story, which they did not hear.

The order of the books retold was random. We also tested knowledge of 9 non-words, three from each story. We used four vocabulary tests assessing different levels of word knowledge. The order of the four vocabulary tests was the same for all children, starting with the expressive tests in order to avoid any possible learning from the receptive tests.

The order of the retellings and the vocabulary tests was counterbalanced: 19 children started with the story retelling, while 20 children completed the vocabulary tests first. See Table 1 for an example schedule. In each book three verbs were substituted by non-words see Appendix for the list of target words. Each of the three books included three non-words, which resulted in nine non-existing target words. In each story two of three non-words were mentioned twice in the oral text and one once.

A female adult recorded the narration. All three stories were animated by the same company 1. To make the static illustrations similar to the animated illustrations, we selected the most representative still frame of each scene in the animated books and presented this for exactly the same amount of time as the animated scene; see in the first row of Figure 1 the illustration that was presented in the static condition and a series of screen dumps from the animated version in the second row.

There was some slight variation between the three books: Bear is in Love with Butterfly included words, The Little Kangaroo words, and Imitators words. Accordingly, the duration of the readings were somewhat different too: to read Bear is in Love with Butterfly took s, The Little Kangaroo s, and Imitators s. We corrected for differences in length of presentation by dividing fixation durations for the whole book by the duration of the stories.

The eye positions were assessed times per second Hz by illuminating both eyes with infrared LED and measuring the reflected light. For fast head movements i. To guarantee the most optimal registration of eye movements, participants were seated at a distance of 60—70 cm from the eye tracker.

At the start of each session, the eye tracker was calibrated for each participant: Children were asked to fixate five dots that appeared in different positions on a screen with a background color similar to the background color of the stimuli. The procedure did not require any effort on the part of the child and took at most s. The total fixation time on the illustrations in a storybook was calculated and divided by the duration of rendering the complete book because there were some variations in the total lengths of the three stories.

Additionally, we assessed the number of fixations per storybook and calculated the average duration of fixations while looking at the storybooks. This was done for all three sessions for both books in the two experimental conditions. Furthermore, per book three illustrations were chosen for detailed eye-tracking analyses. We chose illustrations that depicted the non-words. This detail of the illustration was in motion in the animated condition and clearly visualized in the static condition; see as an example the director in the scene depicted in Figure 1.

The details were the same size in the animated and static condition and the animated illustration did not include additional information as compared to the still illustration. In Figure 1 , for instance, the still picture also shows a jumping director.

Eye-movement data i. We divided the time that children fixated the AOI in an illustration by the time that they looked at the whole illustration in order to control for any differences in the time children looked at the screen between the conditions. This was done for the three AOIs per book. The average percentage was calculated as an indicator for each condition and each session. The average fixation duration was also calculated for each condition and session.

For four children data quality was low, i. For the eye-tracking analyses these four children were excluded and, accordingly, data of 35 children were used. Additionally, outlying scores were winsorized in order to normalize the distribution of the scores. In all, 20 scores 2.

The Raphael Cartoons

Thirty nine participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker. It is proposed that animated illustrations that are well matched to the text of the story guide children to those parts of the illustration that are important for understanding the story. This may explain why animated books resulted in better comprehension than static books. When information from different sources are simultaneously available it supports the integration of images and language, and the verbal information will be understood and retained better than if conveyed by words alone Paivio, Reviews focusing on software for young children have shown that, apart from static pictures, in particular animated pictures can be helpful additions to stories Kamil et al.

Your child's favorite cartoon characters have important lessons to teach. Therefore as a medium, cartoons often offer a better chance of recollection by.

Cartoon Network Studios Has Some New Ideas for Getting New Ideas

Producing a tapestry required the diverse talents of many artists and craftsmen. First, an artist would create a design, usually on commission from a workshop manager or independent entrepreneur. The design would then be made into a cartoon, or full-scale model. The term derives from the Italian cartone , a large sheet containing a full-scale preparatory design for a work in a different medium. During the 15th century, cartoons were predominantly rendered in tempera on cloth or linen as paper was much more expensive. In the 16th century, cartoons were mostly painted in watercolor on paper. By the midth century, oil on canvas emerged as the dominant medium. Cartoons were valuable commodities, frequently passed down through successive generations of workshop managers in tapestry-making families or transferred from one family to another through marriage, trade, and purchase. Many cartoons were repeatedly modified so that they would continue to appeal to contemporary taste.

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LottieFiles provides all the tools that you need to create, edit, test and display Lottie animations. Access thousands of free animations. Customize animations for your brand. With our web-based Lottie Editor you can easily apply your brand colors to any animation, and insert any text or message.

Many cartoon animals are near and dear to our hearts despite being animated.

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Medium Mix Cartoon Name Stickers

Movies could also work for plenty of gaming IPs, but a serialized format would arguably give the most breathing room for a story to be done justice. Big props go to the art direction and impressive acting, which go hand-in-hand with the fantastic storytelling and character writing for why Hades is aching for an animated TV show adaptation. Even the launch trailer for the game essentially served as a proof of concept for how this would work. While the aforementioned Hades is arguably the most seamless pick for an animated TV series, Elden Ring is both a strong contender and the most topical. Given a recent press release from publisher Bandai Namco, though, an Elden Ring animated series might even be inevitable. The likes of The Lord of the Rings , Game of Thrones , and The Witcher have comfortably made fantasy mainstream again, and the rich, dense lore and worldbuilding of the Lands Between would give a potential creative team a sandbox of stories to play with and put to screen. And with George R.

Animation is a big part of the entertainment industry, and new cartoon series Animated cartoons can be made from any medium you choose, such as molding.

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You know, that sidelong squinty-eyed glance of distrust? The truth is that animation weaves through our daily lives in more positive ways than many of us realise. Check it out:. A LOT of it.

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For nearly years, the animated movie as we know it has existed — an artform that, like live-action cinema, sprung from shorts and grew into a major medium in its own right. Team Empire got together to vote for the 50 greatest animated movies ever made — and since animation is a medium rather than a genre, the full list comprises a banquet of tastes and tones. We have traditional family adventures, black-and-white coming-of-age stories, self-referential meta-features, superhero stories, devastating war films, and imaginative flights of fantasy — all showing that animation can be far more than just cartoons for kids though we do, of course, love those deeply too. Read the full list below, and delve into the endless possibilities that the animated medium allows for. For starters there's the practically dialogue-free plot a club-footed grandmother mounts a rescue mission to save her grandson from the Mafia during the Tour de France , the set-pieces the opening musical number, a pedalo chase, a last reel getaway , a great supporting cast sad-faced cyclists, larger-than-life mobsters and the titular ageing music hall stars who steal the show.

Angela Merkel will not be running in the German elections on September 26, marking the end of her 16 years in office. In this collection, you will find some our favorite Merkel cartoons that have been drawn through the years. Merkel wins the elections for the third time. This Sunday, the future of Greece will be decided in make-or-break elections.

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