Berm Herbicide Application: Information On Weed Control For Berms — 80


Billeaud, L. A. and J. M. Zajicek. 1989. “Influence of mulches on weed control, soil pH, soil nitrogen content, and growth of Ligustrum japonicum.” J. Environ. Hort. 7:155–157.

Chalker-Scott, L. 2007. “Impact of mulches on landscape plants and the environment – a review.” J. Environ. Hort. 25: 239–249.

Mallory-Smith, C. A., and E. J. Retzinger. 2003. «Revised Classification of Herbicides by Site of Action for Weed Resistance Management Strategies.» Weed Technology 17 (3): 605–619.


Partial list of postemergence herbicides labeled for use in landscape planting beds.

Different types of bird seeds for different birds

Birds eat different kinds of things however some typical kind of seeds are considered to be the main ingredient of their food. Some specific species remain alive at the intake of some typically specific bird seeds and it is very harmful to give other food items to such kinds of birds. It is very important to know about the different kinds of seed for the birds before giving them food to eat.

Commonly, we provide the mixture of seeds to the birds as the variety of seeds and food is important and essential for their health. The seed of the garden birds differ from that of the wild birds. Similarly, the bird seeds which we can give to hummingbirds cannot be suitable for the nightingale’s species. Therefore, it is good to learn the food for the birds before feeding them properly.

Types of bird seeds

There are numerous kinds of bird seeds however we commonly provide some general types of seeds and their mixture to the birds at the cages, bird tables, gardens, parks and the bird houses. Following are some of the common types of seeds.

Nyjer seeds

These types of seeds are among the most common, healthy and easily available bird seeds. Nyjer seeds are highly rich in oil and fats. So, they are good for the birds which need more energy to fly high in the sky. Generally, goldfinches are fed with these types of seeds.

Sunflower seeds

Black sunflower seeds are recommended for the birds of almost every kind because they are best suitable for the health and diet of the birds. They are not only rich in energy and oil but also good for the fulfillment of the required heat energy for the birds. They are available in various shapes and forms and are most suitable in raw form for the birds.

Millet seeds

Millet seeds are the best kind of seeds for the birds which need small sized seed for themselves. They are the small sized seed which are given to the garden birds like sparrows as well as the birds like gold finches, doves and other ones.

Peanuts as seeds

Peanuts are also categorized as bird seeds. In their raw form peanuts are highly suitable and favorable for the different kinds of birds whereas in their refined form they are generally harmful for the various species of birds. Roasted peanuts should never be given to any kind of bird as bird seeds because they can cause different kinds of injuries and diseases to the birds. Crushed peanuts are very much good for sparrows, wood peckers and other birds.

Precautionary measures

One of the main and important preventive measures to be taken while feeding the birds with the bird seeds is to take care of the weather conditions and climatic features. Many times the winter bird seeds are not good during the summer times. So, it is advised that the bird seeds may be checked and recommended by some expert for providing them suitable and healthy diet.

Fire Blight

Fire blight is the most damaging bacterial disease that affects shrubs and trees in the Rosaceous family during warm spring weather combined with rains or heavy dews.

This disease is most often found in pear, apple, loquat and crabapple trees and has become a nuisance to homeowners and commercial landscape managers. Flower infections can be introduced by bees and other insects from infected wood cankers that ooze bacterial substance in the spring. Trees infected with the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora often have extensive limb cankers and dieback with a characteristic “Shepherd’s Crook” appearance at the tips of the shoots.

The first sign of a fire blight infection is early death of flowers and then green shoots immediately adjacent to the flower petiole. The bacterium moves into the wood of twigs and lateral branches, which express black cankers and can turn completely black. By further spreading of the bacterium with rain splashes and insects to other flowers and shoots, symptoms will often appear scattered throughout the canopy. However, if the weather conditions are most favorable for disease progression and spreading, the whole canopy can be severely affected with a burned appearance thus the name Fire Blight.

Arbor-OTC is a systemic, water soluble, injectable antibiotic for the annual suppression of bacterial diseases in non-food bearing trees and palms. This shelf-stable water-soluble powder comes in two sizes and does not require refrigeration.

Early spring injections of Arbor-OTC® just as buds break is the most optimum time to treat susceptible trees. As late spring and summer temperatures begin to climb, the bacteria will go dormant when water in the soil is scarce and when temperatures are around 85-90°F.

Additional treatment with Arbor-OTC at petal fall will continue to benefit the health of the tree until daytime temperatures reach this level.

The earlier in the bud break the injections are conducted, the better fire blight reduction is achieved. Trees that have adequate soil moisture and warm daytime temperatures will distribute Arbor-OTC upward in the tree within 7-10 days. When early spring dead wood removal is combined with annual treatments of Arbor-OTC, canopy loss will be tremendously reduced.

Main photo taken by Srdjan Acimovic, Arborjet Inc.
Infected flowers taken by Srdjan Acimovic, Arborjet Inc.

Streptocarpus Care Indoors — Tips For Growing Streptocarpus Plants — garden

Care Instructions for a Streptocarpus

These care instructions are written specifically for our streptocarpus plants. Other growers may have different care requirements for their plants based on how they have grown their streps. But if you have a Brennan’s Orchids strep, these rules will help you keep it happy and robust.

Rule No. 1: Let the planting medium lightly dry between waterings. Streps can survive a short drought, but they don’t recover from drowning. Use lukewarm or tepid water when watering because cold water can cause unsightly marks to appear on the leaves. Nobody enjoys a cold shower. Do not let the plant sit in water, it must be well drained.

Rule No. 2: Give the plant the proper light. Morning or soft late afternoon light is best. That means an East, West, or shaded South-facing window. Avoid direct sun during the harsh “skin cancer” hours of the day.

Rule No. 3: Regular meals during the growing season, please. From March through October fertilize every other watering. Use a fertilizer with a balanced formula (10-10-10 or 20-20-20) mixed at ¼ to ½ the usual strength. Strep roots burn easily from too much fertilizer, so it is prudent to underfeed rather than overfeed.

Rule No. 4: Your plant is potted in a peat potting mix but any soil-less mix will be fine. You can repot your strep every nine months or so. Increase the pot size only if you must and then by the smallest increment possible. Avoid deep pots they will hold too much moisture. Avoid terra cotta pots the roots will glue themselves to the porous pot and suffer too much damage when you repot. Moisten the mix prior to removing the plant from the old pot. It will just be that much easier to remove the plant without ripping the roots. Moisten the new mix before planting. Pot the strep so that the mix is firmly in the pot but still airy. Remember to pot the plant so that the crown of leaves sits just above the potting mix surface.

Rule No. 5: Remove spent flowers. In particular, do not let spent blossoms drop onto the leaves and lay there. This will invite rot and disease. Remove old, yellowed, or unhealthy leaves. A clean plant is better able to remain pest and disease free. Your strep will get brown leaf tips, particularly in the fall. This is natural, but I would still remove the brown tips. If you use anything to cut leaves or stems, please sterilize the instrument first.

Rule No. 6: Keep the plant in its comfort zone. It is happy in the temperature range between 50 and 80 degrees. It is well suited to normal house temperatures.

For those areas that call for only a small amount of ground cover, Japanese sweetflag (Acorus gramineus) heeds the call with its 1-foot height and matching spread. It’s yellowish-green evergreen leaves look great in any garden. It thrives in moist to wet soils, making it a perfect addition around a pond. It’s hardy in U.S. Department of Hardiness zones 6 to 9.

If you need a plant with a slightly larger spread, consider broad-leaf sedge (Carex siderosticha «Variegata»). It matures at 1 foot in height, but can reach 3 feet wide. White strips run along the edges of each green leaf, with occasionally thin white strips down the middle. It enjoys moist soil, but a bit less than Japanese sweetflag prefers. It’s hardy in USDA hardiness zones 4 to 9.

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